SEO - Search Engine Optimization
Search Engine Optimization or SEO in its simplest terms is creating a web page or pages that the search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo etc.) will easily find and then will index as high in the rankings for that particular search engine as possible - for the key words or key phrases that describe your business.
If you are anything like me and if the subject is of interest, you will have read the above sentence a time or two in order to better grasp the meaning - and then hope for an expanded explanation. So let's break it up a bit:
The first step is the architecture of the website. The web developer must understand how the search engines are looking for information and build your website so that it meets that criteria.
The second step is your Website Copy, as fresh relevant copy is what the main search engines are requiring. This step involves keyword and key phrase research and the insertion of those phrases into your copy in a manner that is cohesive and easy to read. Web Copy relates back to the architecture of your website as well inasmuch as where the key phrases are placed within the web page.
Website Design - we have all seen pages created, no a better choice of word would be constructed by SEO Experts that are all words and full of information. It works as far as getting the search engines to list your pages, but as has been often stated search engines do not buy your products or services, people do. Effective SEO is the succesful integration of technical knowledge with creative design.
Authoritative Link Building - there are many nefarious and not so nefarious methods of building links back to your website from outside sources. The preferred OTR method is through Social Media making use of your Blog and from that content creating Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and other Social Media tools. There is nothing like being an expert in your field to create backlinks to your web blog and website.
We could go on to talk about key phrase enriched landing pages or managed AdWords and Analytics of your website after the site is constructed. Every web page should be created with a purpose in mind and web analytics determines if that purpose is being accomplished.